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Facts and myths about the origin of the concepts Rus', Russia and Ukraine
There is a necessity to account for an important feature which determines essence of problem of understanding of the name Rus’.
Greeks, byzantines, and also the majority of others which knew Rus' from ancient times, wrote and said its name as "Russia". Since then, mainly under such name, also there was it known in the so-called civilized world.
.Also, the name of country was known by the native name is Russia, and also the name is Ukraine was used.
However most distribution in a world, especially in the newest times, name Rus’ – as Russia – got from the ХVIII item, and reason became taking of it as a new name to the Moscow reign, which the tsar Peter-1 at that time actively reconstructed and the extended.
A clever and energetic tsar wanted at any cost to become firmly established in a world, and wanted to especially to change attitude toward him of the old European states.
And was needed for this purpose the name known in a world, and which had more more solid history, than of that time history of his Moscow monarchy, and could cause respect of the foreign states.
Because of genealogical communication of sprouts of branches of genealogy of some Moscow tsars with ancient Kiev princely births, and also certain traditions, that were carried the "Мати городов руських" [Mother of the Russian cities] to outside Russia - on Suzdal’, Novgorod, Smolens’k and Moscow lands, sure unique possible for such use, there could be exactly the name Rus’.
It is needed also to notice that in the decision of question of the name of the state the Peter І expressed a large cunning. Probably realizing that the simple use of the stranger name unworthily his monarch majesty, and on the acquired habit to name everything the foreign names, Peter І, by the decree in 1721, commanded to name the acquired empire the not russian word “Russia”, that in Moscow it begins to be pronounced as Rossia (Россия – in Russian language).
Two problems were thus decided: at first – in the literal understanding, name Russia not in any way belonging to the Moscow tsar, formal it was not taken (that – it was not taken in his actual pronunciation); secondly, – in perception of foreigners, Russia was that country which they knew in the past, as country with old and majestic history, that is Rus’.
Consequently, substitution of concepts and names took place, as a result of what the name Rus’, that in a world mainly well-known as Russia, Greek and Latin sounds as "Russiya" , in English-language tradition is pronounced as "Russia" [Rasha], and Russian is pronounced and is written "Россия" [Rossiya], outside actually Ukraine-Rus’ contacts exceptionally with Moscow and Russia.
Use of the name of the neighbouring state – Rus’ and distortion of her to the name Russia, resulted in the origin, it is possible one of most myths in world history...
About these and some other not popular facts about the origin of usual names, and also about that why arch-enemy of Rus' - Andrey Bogolyubskyi is the Ukrainian orthodox church (UOC) respects as saint, it is possible to know from a note "Facts and myths about the origin of the names Rus’, Ukraine and Russia".
Facts and myths
Disintegration of Rus’ on separate specific principalities, that was legalized by Lyubets’k convention of the princes 1097, became an occasion to forming of historical Ukrainian lands. The name Ukraine is first remembered in the known ancient chronicles (the names are also used – “Украйна” [Ukrayna], “Вкрайна” [Vkrayna], “Украина” [Ukraina]) . So under 1187 the “Kyiv chronicle” on the “Ipatiy list”, narrating about death of the Pereyaslav prince Volobymyr Glibobych during a hike on Polowcy, speaks that ''плакашеся on немь вси переяславци'' [all pereyaslavtsy cried about him], because he was the prince of ''всякими добродЂтельми наполнен - о нем Украина много постона'' [filled with various virtues – about him all Ukraine grieve]. Under 1189 in that chronicle in the recital of the prince Rostyslav Berladnyk is remembered, that he arrived ''ко Украйні Галичькой'' [to Ukraine of Galych'skoy] (on determination of Podnistrians’ke Lower Reaches). In a chronicle Galyts’ko-Volyn’s’ka under 1213 there is a record „Данилу же возвратившуся к домови, и Ђха с братомъ, и прия Берестий, и Угровескъ, и Верещинъ, и Столпъ, Комовъ, и всю Oукраиноу'', that all забужанську Ukraine. In that chronicle under 1268 we find the utterance of ''украйняни'', under 1280 - ''на ВкраинЂ'', under 1282 - ''на ВкрайницЂ''. In all cases by the word Ukraine mainly boundary earths are designated against a state center in Kiev. Two names Rus’ and Ukraine were used at the same time (the examples of the double name of countries in Europe are widespread and now: England is Britain, Holland is netherlands, Finland is Suomi...).
Seal of Sviatoslav Igorevych (957-972)
Trident of Volodymyr Velykyi (980-1015)
Brick from ruins of the Tithe church, with a bearing a coat of arms sign as on the chinks of Volodymyr. 10ce.
Trident of Yaroslav Mudryi (1019-1054)
In 1410 the militia of Peremys’k land took part in the victorious Grunwald battle under dark blue gonfalon with the image of yellow double-headed eagle with a crown.
On Synod of Constantinople patriarch in 1303 during consideration of question about formation of Galyts’ko-Volyns’k church metropolitanate it was accepted to name of that times Kyiv and Gaytl’ko-Volyns’k principalities Mikro Russia [Small Russia] /in Russian began to name – „Малороссия” [Malorossia] (Smallrussia - in English)/, that <Rus’ senior, initial, basic, older>). Zalissia and Novgorod land - Megale Russia [Great Russia], that meant <Rus’ more late, derivative, again formed>). As in Byzantium the name of Slavs Naddnipyans’ki [Slavs Over Dnipro] with the root of “ros” (<peoples Ros>) gained a foothold since olden times, was removed her and in the term Russia, which finally became firmly established on the end of the 15ce.
Consequently, terms „Розсип” (Russia), Малоросія (Smallrussia, Великоросія and all from them derivatives were formed in the church offices of universal patriarch.
At first and title “Всія Русі” [Wsia Rusi] (All Rusi), and the names Small Russia and Great Russia were used only in church practice and was not spread on society office work. In the field of state administration and public relations during the X-XIII ce. Rus’ Naddniprians’ka was considered Rus’ only. As visible from of that times chronicles, if someone from Novgorod, Rostov or Suzlal’ set forth to Kyiv, Chernigiv or Pereyaslav, it was perceived, that he „їде на Русь” (goes to Russia). Thus, on the territory of future Moscow reign under a concept Rus’ was understood modern territory of Ukraine.
Novgorod land, Zalissia and some other provinces of the Kyiv empire, as Russian princely and church administration managed them, was considered “Russian lands”, but they were never named Russia.
At the same time, with the 16ce. the name Ukraine is used only in the value of ''Country or the State populated by Ukrainians''.
In the 15-17ce. the Ukrainian bookmen and high church hierarchies began to use a term “Russia” and to mix up him with the name “Rus’”. Such titles are witnessed in the official records of that time: “Митрополит Кіевского престола и всея Росіи” (митрополит Мисаїл, 1476), /Metropolitan of Kiev trone and all Russia (metropolitan Mysail, 1476/ “митрополит Киевъский, Галицький и всея России (митрополит Іпатій Потій, 1605) /metropolitan Kiev, Galichina and all Russia> (metropolitan Ipatiy Potiy, 1605) and other. And rusyny (Ukrainians and byelorussians) sometimes named itself <rossiys’ki> or <ros’kyi> by people, underlining the same the national difference from Moscow <russkyi>.
In Moscow terms Russia (Россия) for denotation of country began to be used in the 16ce: the "Russia" name is first witnessed in the Moscow deed of 1517, and in 1577 printed in Moscow Suburb <Psalter> name is first used “Великія Росіи” (Great Russia).
From the middle of the XVI ce "Россией" began to name all aggregate of earths which entered by then in the Moscow centralized state. During the 16-17ce the adjectives of “росский”, “российский” appeared also. How marked Kostomarov : “слово "Россия" or "Russia", "российский" was at the beginning a book, rhetorical, similar till France was named Gallia, Poland - Sarmaty, Germany - Germany, Hungary - Panonia, Greece - Ellada and etc
In the middle of the 17ce. the Moscow tsar Alex Michael, extracting after the Pereyaslav agreement of 1654 a protectorate above so called Get’manshchyna, used old church-administrative terminology of Constantinople patriarch office and in 1655 assumed a title “всея Великая, Малая и Белая Руси самодержець” (All Great, Small and White Russia autocrat).
In 1721, understanding the hegemony in East Europe, tsar Peter I changed the everlasting name of Moscow state, taking the name of the Kyiv state for her, in pronunciation accepted by the office of church to patriarch, is Russia. For this purpose he changed the title "Monarch Moscow" on "Emperor All-Russian", whereupon in 1725 to the foreign countries directives were sent in subsequent to name state no Moscow but Russian. “…чтоб печатали Российским, о чем и к прочим ко вcем Дворам писано” (That printed /named/ Russian, about what it is written to all other Courts)
From those times Moscow people officially began to be named "Russian". In Rus’-Ukraine was yet long used the age-old name of "московиты" (moscowity) or "москалі" (moscali).
At the same time the colonial name "Малоросcия" [Malorossia] (Smallrussia) with etnoname “малоросс”, “малороси” gradually acquired colouring touchy for Ukrainians as sign something more low and less cost.
It is needed to notice that subsoil for such neglect of the Ukrainian people is not to be actually. To the supporters of humiliation Ukrainian etnos it is needed better to know history, because there were not only no Russians in old lands on nowaday Moscow and adjoining territories in old times, but there were no people which to 1721 “moscowity” was named.
In fact in scythian times (7-2BCE.) scythians, that fed cultivating soil lived, as the historian Gerodot wrote, on Right shore of Dnipro. Greeks of them named Borysfenites. (River Dnipro (Dnepr) ancient Greeks named Borysfen). These ploughmen lived also within the limits of 3th days of ride east and 11 days on a north. And farther, north of modern Chernigov, in a country between of Volga and Oka, as Gerodot certifies, lived „androfages” (cannibals). In obedience to Gerodot, androfages were the "special tribe not quite scythian. Among all androfages the most wild habits were had; they acknowledged no justice and had no law; they conducted nomadic life; their clothing alike with scythian; their language is different enough from scythian; they one of all these tribes are cannibals".
By the founder of the state, that with XVce began to be named Moscow, Andrey Bogolyubskiy is considered (on about June, 1111 - 29 1174). Son of the prince Yuriy Dolgoruki, (cadet of the Great Kyiv prince Volodymyr Monomah). Collected the Bogolyubskiy Nickname from the name of the Bogolyubowo city which did by the residence. Tried to tear off Suzdal’ earth from Kyiv, form separate metropolitanate, organized the robbery of Kyiv and extermination of his habitants in 1169. At the head of army of collected outside Russia, which was folded with suzdal’ians, smolyians and polovets’, Andrey Bogolyubskiy two days robbed and cities burned the "мати городов руських". Great number of kyivers were killed and taken away in a captivity. Not only valuables but also all holiness perched in monasteries and churches: icons, crosses, ringings and riesas. The Pechers’kyi monastery and Sophia cathedral were set on fire and ransacked, taken out from Kiev icon of Preswiata our Lady. Later Bogolyubskiy was killed by the supporters.
Using the fictitious name „South Russia” (Using the fictitious name "Южная Русь" /South Russia/ (to 18cent. of the names "South Russia" and "Kiev Russia" did not exist. They were invented later by historian of the Russian empire) and justifying by "политическими причинами" (by political reasons) the predatory hike of Andrey Bogolyubskiy on Kyiv, Russian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy of eulogizes all his acts, names the "Великим святым благоверным князем" (Great saint by the blessed prince), and, substituting a concept, asserts that "Боголюбский сумел добиться объединения Русской земли под своей властью" (Bogolyubskiy managed to obtain association of Russian land under the your power).
Also respects Andrey Bogolyubskiy, as saint, Ukrainian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy(УПЦ).
Without regard to that in Ukraine far not all respect Ukrainian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy (УПЦ), and far of citizens give advantage to the Ukrainian orthodox church of Kiev patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and also the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Ukrainian Government, Since Premieres of the minister V. Yayekovych, in public demonstrates the favour exceptionally only to the Orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy – УПЦ. This fact gets the defined value, if to pay attention to that УПЦ openly is financially supported by Russian guidance, and operates exceptionally after the decision of Moscow patriarch.
Certificate: Predstoyatel’ of УПЦ «Блаженнійший Митрополит Київський і всія України» (Blessed Metropolitan Kyiv and all Ukraine) It is elected out, from the number of candidates which are ratified by Moscow patriarch. Gets out in Moscow Bishop Cathedral which is headed that Moscow patriarch, and becomes firmly established him (By Moscow patriarch) on position. (See “Statute of the Russian Ortodox Church” http://www.mospat.ru/text/e_regulations/id/4034.html ) .
True, the Russian figures of the Orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy deny it, asserting that on the church positions they are appointed by god - „Мы, архипастыри, избранные Господом на служение благу народа Божия” (We are supreme pastors selected by God for service to the people of God). And, using militaristic rhetoric, with the threat, Ukrainians warn: „знаем: тот, кто поддерживает расколы, воюет с Богом. Эта война никогда не кончится победой, но принесет всем страдания и горе. Церковь всегда поддерживала только тех, кто твердо стоит за единство канонического Православия” (we know that, who supports the dissidences, is at war with God. This war will never end by victory, but will bring sufferings and grief to all. A church always supported those only, who defends unity of canonical Orthodoxy” (Read – Obedience to Moscow). (See "Послание Архиерейского Собора Президенту Украины Леониду Даниловичу Кучме" (Message of Bishop Cathedral to the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma).
It is needed to notice that attempt to incarnate in life the plan of association of slavonic people on Andrey Bogolyubskiy, is not halted until now. Actively operating in Ukraine, public organization „Единое Отечество” proclaims for the whole world, that left-bank of Dnepr there is no Ukraine (See «Русская и православная общественность Украины, Новороссии и СПГ поддерживают заявление Виктора Януковича о государственном статусе русского языка. Заявление пресс-службы "Единого Отечества» («Russian and orthodox public of Ukraine, Novorossiya and «Union of orthodox citizens» supports the statement of Victor Yanukovych about state status of Russian. Statement of press-service of «Single Homeland»), an also - "Мы искренне рады Вашему визиту в бывшую Новороссию - Днепропетровск...). And "association" of slavonic people, according to "Едине Отечество", foresees obligatory association with Kazakhstan (See http://otechestvo.org.ua/vesti/2004_10/v_11_10.htm).
Ukrainian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy (UOC), and also great number of other Russian public organizations which operate mainly in the east and north-eastern regions of Ukraine, actively interfere in political and public life of Ukrainians.
Agitating for association of slavonic people, they show the all actions which foresee this association exceptionally on Andrey Bogolyubskiy.
The activists of these organizations conduct the opened propaganda directed on the dissidence of Ukraine; continually adjure about differences and insuperable contradictions between the citizens of west, center and east of Ukraine, hinting, and proclaiming in public and remorselessly that as though the real descendants of Russia, there are only actually Russians, and also possible ukrainian are habitants of east and parts of central Ukraine.
Examples of such interference much, however especially it increases in periods of public and political events most meaningful for Ukraine. Yes, in the period of elections of President of Ukraine in 2004, the figures of УПЦ of Moscow patriarchy sometimes indirectly, and more frequent frankly, agitated constantly only for one candidate.
Even then, when, before the second round of elections of president, and similar agitation was and law forbidden, - on November, 9, 2004, on all TV channels most widespread in Ukraine, in and few variants, were demonstrated of the video-materials in which it was shown as “His Holinness Alexy II Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia” and also “His Eminence Beatific Vladimir Metropolitan Kiev and All Ukraine” (Ukrainian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy) had reported, blessed only an unique concrete candidate on the post of President of Ukraine. Here a film was repeatedly demonstrated about that how this unique candidate (certainly is it is an operating Prime Minister) devoutly kindles a candle in a church, standing alongside with Metropolitan of Ukrainian orthodox church of Moscow patriarchy (UOC). Here were repeatedly demonstrated of video-shots, yet in summer turned out, about that how this unique candidate for presidency of Ukraine, he is the defender of introduction in Ukraine of the official Russian language and dual citizenship for Ukrainians and Russians, devoutly kindles a candle in a church, standing alongside with Metropolitan of UOC of Moscow patriarchy. (Dual citizenship substantially will facilitate the outflow of Ukrainians to Russia, as “ostarbеiter” (that known westering as „east works”) of Russian buildings, and will radically improve terms for expansion on Ukraine of the Russian industrial capital, that answers Russian conception of creation of a new "liberal empire"). Video-shots were accompanied by comments about that how UOC of Moscow patriarchy very helps one candidate, and what bad his opponent on presidency of Ukraine. At the same time, in churches and everywhere actively spread the proper maintenance of leaflets with prayers for this candidate, and his opponent was frankly defamed. Interestingly, that in agitation at Moscow patriarchy of candidate (he operating Prime Minister of Ukraine) select to UOC, symbolism of his opponent was used in a negative context, that is illegally, because violates the all possible Ukrainian and international legislative acts, in relation to defence of rights for the proprietor of such symbolism.
Similar Russian organizations in Ukraine are so many, that it was created the „Congress of Russian organizations of Ukraine”, the „Union of orthodox citizens of Ukraine”, the „Russian club”, "Russian block" and other – for the management by their activity.
Influencing of such organizations is so large, that quite often citizens only from them hear the greatest leaders of Ukraine about some sensational decisions.
Україна, 49000, м. Дніпро, вул. Воскресенська, 12/4